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Stormy Weather On Saturn

Saturn is probably the most beautiful member of our Suns enchanting family of eight major planets. It is the second-largest planet in our Solar System, after Jupiter, and it is circled by 62 known moons, and myriads of dancing, tiny moonlets that are a mere 2 to 3 kilometers across. They are mostly icy objects, glittering both within and outside of Saturns magnificent system of rings.

Saturn and Jupiter are our Solar Systems two gas-giant planets. Both are denizens of the outer Solar System, and are primarily composed of extremely dense, deep gaseous atmospheres. Some planetary scientists think that the two immense worlds have no solid surface beneath their heavy envelopes of gas. However, other planetary scientists think that Jupiter and Saturn do have relatively tiny solid cores. The other two major planets that dwell in the outer regions of our Solar System are Uranus and Neptune. Uranus and Neptune are thought to have large cores composed of icy, rocky material, as well as gaseous envelopes that are not nearly as thick as those possessed by Jupiter and Saturn. Uranus and Neptune are the two ice-giant planets of the outer Solar System, and they are smaller than the gas-giants Jupiter and Saturn.

For many scientists and the public, Saturns rings always steal the show. The rings are a collection of innumerable icy bits that range in size from that of minuscule smoke-sized particles to chunks as large as houses. These small orbiting icy objects interact with each other in an exquisite dance, and they are also effected by their planets magnetosopherewhich is the region of a planets magnetic influenceas well as by the larger moons. The main rings create a very wide but unusually thin and ethereal expanse that is approximately 250,000 kilometers across but only tens of hundreds of meters deep. The origins and ages of the rings remain delightfully mysterious. Theories abound and vary greatly. Differing viewpoints suggest that the rings may be as young as 100 million years or as old as the 4.5 billion-year-old planet itself. Determining the age of the rings is an important scientific endeavor. This is because the answer to this elusive question will ultimately provide a fundamental and necessary clue to the origin and evolution of the Saturnian system itself. Although the rings have numerous attributes that make them appear to be quite young, they may have been around for as long as Saturn has.

Saturns magnificent ring system is divided by astronomers into 5 main components: the G, F, A, B, and C rings, that are listed from the outermost to the innermost. Reality, however, is somewhat more complicated than this simple classification would indicate. These main divisions are subdivided into thousands of individual ringlets. The A, B, and C rings are easy to see, and are very wide. However, the F and G rings are slender and ethereal and very difficult to observe. There is also a large gap between the A ring and the B ring, which is termed the Cassini Division.

Although Saturns ring system is the most famous and easiest to observe, all of the giant planets dwelling in the outer limits of our Solar System sport ring systems. However, the ring systems circling the other three giant planets are not nearly as spectacular as Saturns. But, this doesnt mean that the ring systems of the other giant planets are uninteresting. Like Saturn, the other three outer planets also host a myriad of little dancing moonlets that orbit just beyond or very close to the rings, followed by an admirable retinue of larger moons.

On July 1, 2004 NASAs Cassini spacecraft swept into orbit around Saturn and began taking some remarkable pictures. Although Saturn appears to be a placid planet on the surface, Cassini showed that looks can be deceiving, when it imaged the Great Springtime Storm that blasted Saturn in early 2011. NASA announced the discovery of this immense tempest on October 25, 2012. The terrible storm sported a gigantic cloud cover as big as the entire Earth, as well as the largest and hottest stratospheric vortex ever detected in our Solar System. At one point Cassini also detected on Saturn an almost unbelievablespike in regional temperature of 150 degrees Fahrenheit, which represents the biggest jump ever observed in our Solar System. Dr. Brigette Hesman, part of the Cassini team, noted in the October 26, 2012 online National Geographic News that We were quite shocked when we detected the temperature changenothing like that was ever observed before. Dr. Hesman is a research scientist at the University of Maryland.

Along with the dramatic temperature spike came an immense deposit of the hydrocarbon gas ethylene, which is a byproduct of methane, that had been previously observed only in trace amounts in the ringed planets atmosphere. How this ethylene became so dramatically and suddenly abundant is a mystery.

We know this was all caused by a big storm in the lower atmosphere, where temperatures are warm enough for water to condense and form clouds, Hesman continued to note.

The oval-shaped tempest formed when two warm spots in Saturns ever-churning cloud deck collided and merged. The resulting storm was not visible to human eyes. However, it did shine brightly at infrared wavelengths. The tempest raged through Saturns northern latitudes over the latter part of 2010 and most of 2011, and was the largest recorded maelstrom since 1903. Indeed, the storm grew so immense that it swept all the way across the entire planet, and actually caught its own tail. At its peak, the tempestwhich produced extremely high winds and devastating flashes of intense lightningformed a cloud cover that circled Saturn in a band that was 9,000 miles wide!

A Saturnian year is approximately equal to 30 Earth-years. Saturn is stricken by a major storm at roughly the same interval. The Great Springtime Storm arrived eleven years ahead of schedule and lingered for more than half a year. The visible storm spread within the cloud deck of Saturns troposphere, and waves of energy shot up hundreds of miles. This created immense beacons of hot air, which pushed into the stratosphere. Although planetary scientists expected these beacons to disintegrate and cool down, by early 2011 they had instead clung together creating one immense vortex that for a short time was actually larger than Jupiters famously enormous Great Red Spot. A bizarre soupy cauldron of hot gases was also seen encircling the enormous vortex.

The brilliant beacon is expected to fade away and eventually disappear by 2012. However, planetary scientists wonder what other surprises are in store on this beautiful, mysterious, puzzle of a giant planet. Two papers describing the vortex will be published in November 2012, one in the journal Icarus, the other in the Astrophysical Journal.

Why did this Saturnian storm produce so many weird occurrences? Well be studying this one for years to try to figure it out, Hesman told National Geographic.

Stingray At Any Time Thought About Assembly One?

Bear in mind the Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin was killed by a stingray? Very well, thats as soon as the fish turned particularly common along with the earth turned conscious that these creatures is usually very risky when confronted with. For those people that have never acknowledged about stingrays, or probably might have thought that it is not a fish, shouldnt underestimate them beneath any circumstances.

While, it may not search like a fish, stingrays are flat bodied, extensive chest fishes that are related to sharks. Surprisingly, like sharks, stingrays even now tend not to have any bones in them; alternatively their our bodies are supported by cartilage, exactly the same factor thats found within the individuals physique.

Stingrays may possibly seem close to Angel fishes that most of us have adored within our aquariums, but theyre not anyway linked as they have unique characteristics of their very own. The flat sides that you may possibly also observe on stingrays are actually wide broad fins that run via the side of their bodies providing them the flat round shape.

Therefore, to move forward the fish moves their complete human body in a very way that helps them to maneuver forward through drinking water. Although other fishes have to flap their fins that can help them propel as a result of normal water, stingrays ought to run their whole human body to move ahead.

Every fish has a protection mechanism of their own and so does stingray. Stingrays ought to use which might be particularly poisonous and its dead arm off or defense. These statements are really sharp by a number of them possess a spying and edges which are notched or jagged. Most exotic looking stingrays specially the blue spotted kinds have venom in their tails and when they sting their predators, the poison is released and us turns into extremely fatal.

Stingrays commonly desire to remain in shallow water or the drinking water near the shore and is usually prefers warm normal water. They generally invest most of their time lying all-around on by currently being partially on their own around the ocean flooring so that they will hide from their predictors or wait around for their foodstuff to pass by. Their predators are normally sharks along with other such harmful fishes, but they typically control to camouflage themselves given that their shade resembles the mud they hide in.

The stingray continues to be created inside a extremely peculiar manner simply because its mouth, gills, nostrils are underneath its human body whilst its eyes are on high. Nevertheless, researchers have noticed that stingrays dont use their eyes considerably to hunt for food items but they use distinctive sensors Lorenzini, which can help them detect the electrical expenses emitted by its prey.

Meals for stingrays:

Stingrays feed on clams, mussels, oysters, shrimp is and crabs. Stingrays have robust jaws with which they will crush their meal into a wonderful paste.

Stingrays normally give beginning when in your own and typically produced a couple of-half-dozen adolescent ones at a sole time. A peculiar thing about stingrays reproduction system is the fact that although the female stingray however has the newborn inside her, the younger one particular grows to this sort of an extent that when it happens out it seems to be like an grownup stingray. Hence, they are able to survive on their own and feed themselves.

Still one more surprising truth is that stingrays can dwell for greater than 25 decades and can expand to 6.5 ft and weigh 800 pounds.

It is not simple to search out a stingray, or maybe see a glimpse, mainly because they typically shy away from your crowd and typically camouflage on their own aided by the coloring in the mud. Nonetheless, one way that you are able to clearly see a stingray and love its lovely construction would be to go to sea everyday life as they deliver these kinds of creatures inside the vicinity of human beings, and fill you up with every one of the thrilling information about it.

Get Your Video Editing Software at Reputable Software Maker

As we already know, we can get video from various video sites by downloading it. However, somehow the downloaded video cannot be played on our device. Then your solution is changing the video format by using a video converter. A video converter is essential software for many people in video editing industry. It helps a lot in transforming the video format. Video converter allows people to transform video format from one format video to another easily.

Are you looking for solution in video editing? If you had problem in finding software fits your requirement, then you should find the best software maker available to get your solution. One of the best software makers available, Movavi has been in software industry for a long time. Therefore, there is no doubt about the company’s reliability in making quality software for video editing. Every people at Movavi are ready to help customers obtaining quality useful program for various purposes. They can help customers to get program that is easy to use and comprehensive. What is about the price? Well, though they are not free, but you can get one of those at more affordable price. Apart from that, you can get chance to buy a discounted software.

Culinary Schools: Not Just an Education But an Experience

Culinary Schools
Cooking is more of an inherent trait than an acquired one. It is because of this fact that cooking is thought to be an art rather than education. But this does not mean that you do not need to go to a culinary school. It is only via a good education of this art that ones skills can be developed. There are many benefits of going to a culinary school and the chefs who have proper formal education have an upper hand over their counterparts in the many manners. Let us discuss 3 main pros of going to a good culinary school:

1. Specialization

Most restaurants hire chefs who are specialized in some aspect of food (Saucier, Patissier, Poissonier,Rotisseuretc.) or in cooking particular types of dishes. Let us look at certain aspects in which a culinary degree can help you specialize:

a) Stylist: People with a good visual sense can develop this art. This includes garnishing already cooked foods so that they can even look appealing along with tasting scrumptious. Here, a persons sense of colours is tested as mixing of vibrant colours is done to make the meal look more appealing.

b) Catering: Culinary schools not only train you to be good chefs, they also inculcate the skills to help you manage a catering business more effectively. The schools train you to not only make exquisite dishes but also dishes that will hold up for some time if served in a buffet.

c) Personal chefs: There is a growing trend of personal chefs. Cooking programs train you to cook meals that might last for weeks and can easily be frozen and recooked by the client during that duration. This can be a financially rewarding line of job and thus a good culinary school will highly benefit you in this regard.

d) Nutrition expert: Nutritionists study the science of different foods. They analyze the bodily reaction of various kinds of foods in different ages and then offer their expertise regarding the dietary requirements certain foods should meet. Culinary programs provide courses to help you specialize in this field of cooking.

e) Food scientist: You can also become a food scientist with the help of a good culinary school. Food scientists study technical aspects of food packaging, processing and preserving.

2. Degrees

There are various degrees offered by cooking schools which include:


·Associate Degree

·Bachelors Degree

·Masters Degree

There are many kinds of chefs in a restaurant and the post you wish to attain is highly dependent on the degree you have and the school you went to. You cannot possibly dream of being an executive chef without a masters degree unless you have ample years of experience. A cooking degree can thence help to speed up your promotions as well and thereby have great impact on your salary

3. Hands-On Experience

Most of the culinary schools have experienced chefs to guide their students. You thence have great opportunities of learning a lot from other professional while you attend a culinary school. Also, most of the culinary schools require their students to put their education to practice either in college owned restaurants or some restaurants they are affiliated to for practical training purposes. Most of the culinary schools lay major emphasis on hands-on experience that you can gain from activities like community involvement or by working in the industry.

So, in all, culinary schools do not just teach you new and better recipes. They help you develop traits that might benefit you when you actually start working in the food industry.

Important Qualities Of A Physical Therapy Assistant

Physical Therapy Assistant

A physical therapy assistant works under the direct supervision of the physical therapist. This may entail a variety of duties. The physical therapist assistant:

·Works with patients

·Monitors and records patients progress

·Maintains equipment

·Reports observations to the therapist


·Performs office duties

The assistant needs to be organized and have a good grasp of time management in order to competently perform all these duties.


Physical fitness is a key quality that a physical therapy assistant must posses. The job often requires lifting heavy equipment and supporting the entire body weight of a patient. Depending on the location of the job, a physical therapy assistant may spend almost all day running, lifting and demonstrating various techniques. This can sometimes be several hours a day. Being in top physical form is a necessity.


A physical therapy assistants time is not their own. They must work with the schedule of the physical therapist and the patients. This often requires long hours and a varying schedule. Some facilities, such as hospitals, require their staff to work nights. The assistant must be flexible and willing to work a constantly changing schedule.

Detail Oriented

A large part of physical therapy involves paying close attention to detail. Insurance companies have specific demands for recording patient progress. The assistant must remember these and correctly record all patient information. Many physical therapy treatments require close attention to detail as the therapist focuses on specific muscle groups.

Great Listening Skills

Listening skills are an important part of any job, but a physical therapy assistant must have super skills. The physical therapist frequently communicates complex treatment plans that the assistant must implement. Failure to listen adequately can result in costly mistakes. The assistant must also be totally focused on the patient and carefully listen to determine progress and future goals.


Physical therapy assistants will be treating patients from a variety of backgrounds. Many of these patients have recently experienced traumatic accidents and other psychological and physical difficulties. The assistant must have compassion and understanding for the emotional discomfort of the patient.


An important quality of an assistant is the ability to keenly observe their surroundings. When working with a patient, even small actions are important. The patient may not always speak up when they are overworked or in pain. A good therapist will notice nonverbal cues and be able to make the necessary adjustments to ensure the comfort of the patient.


While the physical therapy assistant works under the supervision of the therapist, this does not mean the therapist is always hovering over their shoulder. The assistant needs be comfortable working independently and have a good deal of self-motivation. Accurately managing tasks and responsibilities without interrupting the physical therapist, and correctly identifying when they require help and supervision is a key requirement of the physical therapy assistant.

Communication Skills

The assistant must have excellent verbal and nonverbal communication skills. They must be able to accurately communicate patient progress and concerns with the physical therapist. They must also be able to address concerns with patients and maintain a friendly demeanor at all times.

Patience and Perseverance

Working with individuals who are in constant pain and are working toward a goal can be frustrating. Those patients who are in great pain are often reluctant to complete the required home exercises. The assistant must remain cool and patient and continue to provide motivation to help the patient progress both in therapy sessions and at home.